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Parts of CNC Machines | Functions of Router Parts

Parts of CNC Machine

CNC (computer numerical control) machines are automated tools that use computer programs to control their movement and cutting actions. Different parts of cnc machine are used in a wide range of manufacturing and fabrication industries, from aerospace to woodworking, and are highly valued for their precision, speed, and ability to repeat complex tasks.

CNC machines consist of several major components, each of which plays a crucial role in the machine’s ability to function. These components include:

1. The Control Unit

This is the brain of the CNC machine, and it is responsible for interpreting the program that is input into the machine and converting it into instructions that the other components can understand and execute. The control unit consists of a computer, keyboard, and display screen, as well as other input and output devices.

2. The Motor

The motor is responsible for providing the power that drives the machine’s movement. There are several types of motors that can be used in CNC machines, including stepper motors, servo motors, and linear motors.

3. The Drive System

This component is responsible for converting the motor’s power into movement. In most CNC machines, this is done using a system of gears, belts, and pulleys, but linear drive systems, such as ballscrews, are also commonly used.

4. The Linear Guides

These components are responsible for ensuring that the machine’s movement is smooth and precise. Table Fence consist of a series of bearings or bushings that guide the machine’s movement along its axis of travel.

5. The Spindle

This is the cutting tool of the CNC machine, and it is responsible for performing the actual cutting, drilling, or milling of the material. The CNC spindle is typically powered by its own motor, and it can rotate at very high speeds (up to tens of thousands of RPMs) to achieve the precision and speed required for CNC machining.

6. The Tool Changer

This component is responsible for automating the process of changing cutting tools on the machine. It typically consists of a robotic arm that can pick up and install different tools as needed, without the need for manual intervention.

7. Worktable

This is the surface on which the material being machined is placed. The worktable or Router Table can move along one or more axes to position the material in the correct location for machining.

8. Enclosure

This is the cabinet or housing that surrounds the machine, keeping it safe from dust, debris, and other contaminants. It also provide safety for operator from moving part or high temperature.

9. Software

CNC Software is the backbone for CNC machine, it is a computer program that allows the user to create, edit and input the instructions for the machine. Popular software options include G-code and CAM, which are widely used in the manufacturing industry.


In summary, CNC machines are complex and sophisticated tools that are composed of many different components, each of which plays an important role in the machine’s ability to function. The control unit, motor, drive system, linear guides, spindle, tool changer, worktable, enclosure and software are all crucial to the machine’s performance, and when all these components work together seamlessly, CNC machines are able to achieve incredible precision, speed, and repeatability in their cutting and manufacturing tasks.

Note: Some CNC machines may have few more parts or variations on these parts depending on the specific model and the application for which it is intended.

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